University of Michigan

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. The university was founded in 1817 in Detroit, about 20 years before the territory of Michigan officially became a state, and moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. Today, it is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan system, which now has two satellite campuses, the University of Michigan, Flint and the University of Michigan, Dearborn.

The school is internationally renowned for its academics. In its last published survey in 1995, the National Research Council ranked UM 3rd in the United States in a study that aggregated evaluations of 41 graduate disciplines.

In 2007, U-M produced the highest number of Fulbright awards for any American University, surpassing both Yale and Harvard.The university also has one of the largest research expenditures of any American university and one of the largest number of living alumni at 420,000. The university owns one of the most well-regarded academic medical centers in the United States, the University of Michigan Health System. UM is recognized for its history of student activism and its athletic teams, notably in football, men's basketball, and ice hockey. It is considered as one of the original eight Public Ivys.

The university has 26,083 undergraduate and 14,959 graduate students in 600 academic programs, and each year about 5,400 new students are enrolled. Students come from all 50 U.S. states and more than 100 countries.
The University of Michigan was established in Detroit in 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. The Rev. John Monteith was one of the university's founders and its first President. Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres (16 ha) that it hoped would become the site for a new state capitol, but it offered this land to the university when Lansing was chosen as the state capital. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. The original 40 acres (160,000 m2) became part of the current Central Campus.
The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866 enrollment increased to 1,205 students, many of whom were Civil War veterans, and women were first admitted in 1870. James B. Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded UM's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, architecture, engineering, government, and medicine. UM also became the first American university to use the seminar method of study.

From 1900 to 1920 many new facilities were constructed on campus, including facilities for the dental and pharmacy programs, a chemistry building, a building for the natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, and two residence halls. The university fortified its reputation for research in 1920 by reorganizing the College of Engineering and forming a potent advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. The university became a favorite alternative choice for Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s when the Ivy League schools were applying a quota to the number of Jews to be admitted. As a result, UM gained the nickname "Harvard of the West," which became commonly parodied in reverse after John F. Kennedy referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps while on the front steps of the Michigan Union.

During World War II, UM's research grew to include U.S. Navy projects such as proximity fuzes, PT boats, and radar jamming. By 1950, enrollment had reached 21,000, of whom 7,700 were veterans supported by the G.I. Bill. As the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, UM became a major recipient of government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. At present, much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project.

On October 14, 1960, Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy proposed the concept of what became the Peace Corps on the steps of Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson's speech outlining his Great Society program also occurred at UM.Also during the 1960s, UM saw many protests by student groups. On March 24, 1965, a group of UM faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first ever faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in Southeast Asia.In response to a series of sit-ins in 1966 by Voice–the campus political party of Students for a Democratic Society–UM's administration banned sit-ins. This stimulated 1,500 students to conduct a further one-hour sit-in the LSA Building, which then housed administrative offices. Former UM student and noted architect Alden B. Dow designed the current Fleming Administration Building, which was completed in 1968. The building's plans were drawn in the early 1960s, before student activism prompted a concern for safety. Nevertheless, the Fleming Building's narrow windows, all located above the first floor, and fortress-like exterior led to a campus rumor that it was designed to be riot-proof. Dow denied those rumors, claiming the small windows were designed to be energy efficient.

During the 1970s, severe budget constraints challenged the university's physical development; however, the 1980s saw a surge in funds devoted to research in the social and physical sciences. Meanwhile, the university's involvement in the anti-missile Strategic Defense Initiative and investments in South Africa caused controversy on campus. During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. The university also emphasized the development of computer and information technology throughout the campus.

In the early 2000s, UM also faced declining state funding due to state budget shortfalls. At the same time, the university attempted to maintain its high academic standing while keeping tuition costs affordable. There were also disputes between UM's administration and labor unions, notably with the Lecturers' Employees Organization (LEO) and the Graduate Employees Organization (GEO), the union representing graduate student employees. These conflicts led to a series of one-day walkouts by the unions and their supporters. The university is currently engaged in a $2.5 billion construction campaign.In 2009, the university consummated a deal to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 feet (490,000 m) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2) of administrative space. As of the purchase date, the university's intentions for the space were not announced, but the expectation is that the new space will allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

Law Quadrangle

About 65% of undergraduate students are enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (LS&A), while the College of Engineering has about 20%. Fewer than 3% of undergraduate students are enrolled in the Ross School of Business. The rest of the undergraduate students are enrolled in the smaller schools, including the School of Nursing, the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and the School of Art and Design.

Most graduate students are enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School, the College of Engineering, the Law School, the Ross School of Business, and the Medical School. The Medical School is partnered with the University of Michigan Health System, which comprises the University's three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for medical care, research, and education. Other academic units include the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning and the Schools of Dentistry, Education, Information, Music, Theatre & Dance, Natural Resources and Environment, Public Health, and Social Work, of which Social Work has been ranked first by the U.S. News and World Report every year since 1994.

Biomedical Science Building
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
School of Medicine
College of Engineering
School of Law
School of Dentistry
School of Pharmacy
School of Music, Theatre & Dance
School of Nursing
A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture & Urban Planning
Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies
Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy
School of Education
Stephen M. Ross School of Business
School of Natural Resources & Environment
School of Public Health
School of Social Work
School of Information
School of Art & Design
School of Kinesiology

There are over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy, and 435 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline. The university routinely leads in the number of Fulbright Scholars in the late 1990s and 2000s, and has also matriculated 25 Rhodes Scholars.

In one recent rankings summary, more than 70% of UM's 200 major programs, departments, and schools were ranked in the top 10 in the nation The 2008 U.S. News and World Report ranks UM 25th among all American universities and 3rd among public universities.

In its 2007 annual college rankings, The Washington Monthly ranks UM sixth nationally with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility.Newsweek International rates UM 11th globally based on "openness and diversity" as well as "distinction in research". Similarly, the 2007 edition of the Fiske Rankings rates UM with "5 Stars"—reserved for only those universities of the highest academic quality. Furthermore, UM's academic reputation has led to its inclusion on Richard Moll's list of Public Ivies.

A concern about academics at UM is the high level of educational expenses for a public institution, especially for out-of-state undergraduate students, who pay between US $31,301 and $36,352 annually for tuition alone. In 2005, out-of-state tuition at UM was the most expensive in the United States for a public college or university.

Interior of Law Library

Conversely, in-state undergraduate students paid between US $10,447 and $14,442 annually. Notwithstanding the quoted tuition levels, the university is attempting to increase financial aid availability to students. To that end, the university has, built as part of its larger university campaign, a greater than US $440 million endowment in order to replace loans with out-right grants to students .

University of Michigan ranked 38th in the 2007 THES-QS World University Ranking

University of Michigan ranked 18th in the 2008 THES-QS World University Ranking

University of Michigan ranked 19th in the 2009 THES-QS World University Ranking

University of Michigan ranked 15th in the 2010 QS World University Ranking

University of Michigan ranked 14th in the 2011 QS World University Ranking

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